*Warning: Disturbing pictures of cannibalism.*
You have heard of “the Nazis”, but it is unlikely you have heard of Nazino. Nazino was an island gulag (bordered by rivers) in the middle of Siberia. The nearest settlement was 100s of kilometers away. Here on the gulag in 1933, 6,000 prisoners were sent, and 4,000 died (only 2,000 survived). Because of the lack of resources the prisoners were given, and living in the harsh frozen tundra, many people turned to cannibalism to survive. The Jewish members of Stalin’s cabinet, Yagoda and Berman, were the architects of this plan to send prisoners (that included political dissidents and innocent people who had been plucked off the streets) to this island gulag, a place bounded on all sides by rivers, in the middle of Siberia.
The following is from firsttoknow
PHOTOS: Cannibal Island, Where People Ate Each Other to Survive
It was 1933 when Stalin gathered 6,114 people, referred to only as “outdated elements,” and shipped them off to an obscure, uninhabitable island in Western Siberia. These undesirable citizens included the handicapped, the unemployed and the very poor. They simply did not fit Stalin’s plan for a utopian mother Russia.
The journey for these people was hard. After being deported, they were put in boats which floated down the river to Nazino Island. By the time they reached their destination, 27 people had already died.
Part of Stalin’s plan was for these 6,000+ people to settle the Siberian tundra to which they’d been banished. This land was already a part of Russia, but it was completely uninhabited due to the harsh and unforgiving climate. Eventually, Stalin hoped to resettle 2,000,000 Russians on Nazino Island.
On the island, these doomed and abandoned people had no access to food and basic supplies for survival. The only thing they were given to eat by the guards was flour, which they mixed with river water to drink. It immediately gave them dysentery.
On the first night in their new home, 295 more people died.
Guards were set up to monitor the ‘progress’ of the surviving Russians. If anyone was seen attempting to escape the island, they were immediately shot. Despite the surveillance, many did attempt to flee on makeshift rafts. Most of these people froze to death or they drowned.
Witness accounts include tales of cannabalism, to which many turned out of sheer desperation. Sometimes, the stronger men would pretend to set up a raft so as to escape the island only to lure the weaker ones over. They would then kill and eat them.
Guards arrested people on charges of cannibalism, but this didn’t deter the survivors from doing the same, just to survive.
One historian, Nicolas Werth, managed to write an account of what he saw on the island in a book called
Despite the failure of his grandiose plan to expand settlements along Navino island and beyond, Stalin sent another 1,200 people to Nazino Island. Almost immediately, the newcomers were attacked and eaten by the people who’d by now fully taken up cannibalism.
In 1988 details about the Nazino Affair began to leak to the general public, due to the work of the Memorial Society, a Russian historical and civil rights society. The Soviets had, unfortunately, destroyed most of the documents about Stalin’s plan and the horrible events that took place on Nazino Island.
It wasn’t until 2002 that a proper report was issued from the Russians, which also included the estimate that over 4,000 people had died on Cannibal Island.
VIDEO: The Nazino Gulag (Cannibal Island) Youtube
The Nazino affair was the mass deportation of 6,000 people, 4,000 of whom died, on Nazino Island (Russian: остров Назино) in the Soviet Union in 1933. The small, isolated Western Siberian island is located about 800 km north of Tomsk, in Alexandrovsky District, Tomsk Oblast near the confluence of the Ob and Nazina Rivers.
Map of the Nazino area
It is called “Death Island” (Russian: Остров Смерти, Ostrov Smerti) or “Cannibal Island” because about 4,000 out of 6,000 Soviet “special settlers” died there during the summer of 1933, after being abandoned with only flour for food, few tools and little clothing or shelter.
A report on the events was sent to Joseph Stalin by Vassilii Arsenievich Velichko. The report was distributed by Lazar Kaganovichto members of the Politburo, and was preserved in an archive in Novosibirsk. It states that 6,114 “outdated elements” (also known as “déclassé and socially harmful elements” or classless people) arrived on the island in late May 1933. They had been transported from Moscow and Leningrad, first by train to Tomsk, then by river barge to Nazino. At least 27 people died during the river transport. There was no shelter on the island, it snowed the first night, and no food was distributed for four days. On the first day 295 people were buried.
In February 1933 Genrikh Yagoda, head of the OGPU or secret police, and Matvei Berman, head of the GULAG proposed a self-described “grandiose plan” to Stalin to resettle up to 2,000,000 people to Siberia and Kazakhstan in “special settlements.” The deportees or settlers were to bring over a million hectares of virgin land into production, and become self-sufficient in two years.
This plan was based on the experience of deporting 2,000,000 kulaks and other agricultural workers to the same areas in the previous three years. The resources available to support the plan were severely limited by the famine caused by the introduction of collective farms and dekulakization.
The original plan targeted several types of kulaks, peasants, “urban elements,” people living on the USSR’s western frontiers, and petty criminals. By early Spring 1933 the number had been reduced to 1,000,000 deportees. Stalin rejected the plan in May 1933, about the time that deportees arrived on Nazino Island.
Many of the deportees were people in Moscow and Leningrad who had been unable to obtain an internal passport. The passportization campaignbegan with a December 27, 1932 decision by the Politburo to issue internal passports to all residents of major cities. One of their objectives was to “cleanse Moscow, Leningrad and the other great urban centers of the USSR of superfluous elements not connected with production or administrative work, as well as kulaks, criminals, and other antisocial and socially dangerous elements.”
“Déclassé and socially harmful elements”, that is former merchants and traders, peasants who had fled the famine in the countryside, petty criminals, or anybody who didn’t fit into an idealized Communist class structure, were not issued passports, and they could be arrested and deported from the cities after a summary administrative procedure, where they were not present. Most of the arrestees were deported within two days.
Between March and July 1933, 85,937 people living in Moscow were arrested and deported because they lacked passports; 4,776 people living in Leningrad were also deported. Those arrested in connection with the cleansing of Moscow prior to the May 1, 1933 May Day holiday were deported to the Tomsk transit camp, with many later being sent to Nazino Island.
Velichko’s report gave 22 examples of people who had been deported:
According to the plan of fellow Jews, Yagoda and Berman, the gentile deportees would pass through transit camps at Tomsk, Omsk, and Achinsk. The largest camp was at Tomsk, which had to be rebuilt from scratch, starting in April to hold 15,000 deportees. 25,000 deportees arrived in April even though the camp was not scheduled to be completed until May 1. River transport to the final labor camps was closed until the start of May until ice on the Ob and Tom Rivers cleared. Most of the first arrivals were kulaks and other agricultural workers, and people from southern Russian cities. The arrival of so many deportees panicked Tomsk authorities, who viewed them as “starving and contagious.”
A rail convoy holding déclassé deportees left Moscow on April 30, and a similar convoy left Leningrad on April 29, with both arriving on May 10. The daily food ration during the trip was 300 grams of bread per person. Criminal groups among the deportees beat the other deportees and stole their food and clothing. The authorities in Tomsk were unfamiliar with urban deportees, and expected trouble from them, so decided to send them to the most isolated work sites. Two nights after their arrival in Tomsk a disturbance broke out, as they demanded drinking water, which was put down by mounted troops.
Four river barges, which were designed to haul wood, were filled with about 5,000 deportees on May 14. About a third of the deportees were criminals who were sent in order to “decongest the prisons.” About half were déclassé people from Moscow and Leningrad. The authorities in the Alexandro-Vakhovskaya komandatura, who were to be in charge of the labor camps, were first informed that they would be sent on May 5. These authorities had never worked with urban deportees and had no food, tools or supplies to support them.
The deportees were kept below decks on the barges and apparently fed a daily ration of 200 grams of bread per person. Twenty tons of flour – about four kilos per person – were also transported, but the barges contained no other food, cooking utensils, or tools. All supervisory personnel, two commanders and fifty guards, were newly recruited. The guards had no shoes or uniforms.
Life and death on Nazino Island
The barges unloaded their passengers during the afternoon of May 18, on Nazino Island, a swampy island about 3 km long and 600 meters wide. There was no roster of the disembarking deportees, but on arrival 322 women and 4,556 men were counted, plus 27 bodies of those who died during the trip from Tomsk. Over a third of the deportees were too weak to stand on arrival. About 1,200 additional deportees arrived on May 27.
A fight broke out and guards fired on the deportees as the twenty tons of flour were deposited on the island and distribution began. The flour was moved to the shore opposite the island and distribution on the island was tried again the next morning, with another fight and more firing resulting. Afterward, all flour was distributed via “brigadiers” who collected flour for their brigade of about 150 people. The brigadiers were often criminals who abused their positions. There were no ovens to bake bread, so the deportees ate the flour mixed with river water, which led to dysentery.
Some deportees made primitive rafts to try to escape, but most of the rafts collapsed and hundreds of corpses washed up on the shore below the island. Guards hunted and killed other escapees, as if they were hunting animals for sport. Because of the lack of any transportation to the rest of the country, except upstream to Tomsk, and the harshness of life in the taiga, any other escapees were ultimately presumed dead.
On May 21 the three health officers counted 70 new deaths, with signs of cannibalism observed in five cases. Over the next month about 50 people were arrested for cannibalism. During early June, 2,856 deportees were transferred to smaller settlements upstream the Nazina River, leaving just 157 deportees who could not be moved for health reasons on the Nazino Island. Several hundred of the deportees died during the transfer; 1,500 – 2,000 deportees had died on the island, and hundreds of escapees had disappeared. People who survived the transfer found themselves with few tools, and little food in their new settlements, and there was an outbreak of typhus. Most deportees refused to work in the new settlements.
In early July new settlements were constructed by the authorities using non-deportee labor, but only 250 settlers were transferred there. About 4,200 new deportees who arrived from Tomsk were housed in these settlements. According to Velichko’s letter to Stalin, on August 20 only 2,200 people survived out of about 6,700 deportees that he calculated had arrived from Tomsk. Velichko’s letter resulted in a commission to study the affair. In October the commission estimated that of 2,000 survivors, half were ill and bedridden, and only about 200 to 300 were capable of working.
In 1989, an eyewitness reported to Memorial:
The French historian Nicolas Werth, who earlier co-authored The Black Book of Communism, published the book Cannibal Island about the affair in 2006. It was translated into English in 2007. In 2009 a documentary L’île aux Cannibales (Cannibal Island) was made, based on the book.